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From EDR to MDR

Was recently featured in Enterprise Security Magazine on the topic of moving from EDR to MDR. As we are hit with the ever increasing volume of incidents and the shortage of trained professionals to handle them, we need to leverage partnerships to deal with these issues. One of the ways I am addressing this, is to make use of Managed Detection & Response services with a vendor to help react faster and gives us time to mitigate the issues.

Here is a link to the article : https://managed-security-services-apac.enterprisesecuritymag.com/cxoinsight/from-edr-to-mdr-the-security-industry-gets-serious-about-visibility-nid-1480-cid-83.html

And here is a copy of the article in PDF -> click here to download

New YouTube Channel

Do check out my youtube channel where I talk about some of the latest threat in 2019, diversity in hiring and a brief history of the SOC.


Public Wi-Fi Hygiene


As we are becoming a more connected society, the need for internet access on the go is becoming more important. Many people would look for a public Wi-Fi access when they are out and about. In May 2016, Symantec (a leading cybersecurity firm) conducted an online survey of 1025 people to find out what users are doing on public Wi-Fi.

From the report, 57% of consumers think their information is safe when using public Wi-Fi connections. And only 49% think that they are responsible for securing their own information. 18% believe that the Wi-Fi provider is responsible for protecting their data and another 18% believe it is the website operators who are responsible.

Common activities on public Wi-Fi include logging into a personal email account (55%), logging into social media (54%) sharing photos and videos (38%) and 20% have used it to access their banks or perform some financial transactions.

But behind some of these “free” Wi-Fi access lurks some malicious intent. This paper will cover some of the basic hygiene you should adopt when using public Wi-Fi connections.

Many people are using free Wi-Fi access without a second thought about the security of the connection. Most would trade privacy or security for convenience and are not fully aware of the consequence. The biggest threat would be that your data, traffic and identity could be stolen and majority of users are not doing enough to protect themselves.

Problem Statement

With the lax protection in most public Wi-Fi, many users are putting their data and devices at risk. Encryption is usually employed to keep network traffic private and prevent snooping. For example, the Wi-Fi network at home is usually set up with some encryption like WPA2, so that even if your neighbour at home is within range of your Wi-Fi network, they cannot see the web pages you are viewing. This wireless traffic is encrypted between your device and your wireless router or access point.

When you connect to an open Wi-Fi network like one at a shopping centre, restaurant or airport, the network is usually unencrypted. This is usually indicated by the lack of a padlock symbol (next to the network name on your device or you do not have to enter any password when connecting to the network. Your unencrypted network traffic is then clearly visible to everyone in range. Even with a secure banking application with the data encrypted, they may be able to know which bank you use.

There are also many rogue access points that are mimicking a legitimate Wi-Fi connection to fool you into connecting to them. The biggest threat with this is the ability for the hacker to position himself between you and the connection point. So instead of connecting directly to the Wi-Fi hotspot, information will be sent to the hacker, who then relays it on.

Hackers can also use an unsecured Wi-Fi connection to distribute malware. If you allow file-sharing across a network, the hacker can easily plant infected software on your computer. Some ingenious hackers have even managed to hack the connection point itself, causing a pop-up window to appear during the connection process offering an upgrade to a piece of popular software. Clicking the window installs the malware.


I would highlight some areas to be aware of to improve your security while looking for and connecting to public Wi-Fi hotspots.

Be careful of fake (rogue) Wi-Fi hotspots

There are many hackers out there that use a fake (honeypot) Wi-Fi hotspot to collect information about the user. These rogue Wi-Fi hotspots often use the same SSID as legitimate hotspots (e.g. Wireless@SG, etc.) or use a name associated with the location (e.g. yourlocalcoffeeshopfreewifi, etc.)

These rogue Wi-Fi hotspots often attempt to capture your credentials with a spoofed login screen and often would just collect the information and pass the traffic straight to the internet so users may not realize the webpage was a fake. This is especially hard to detect in a foreign hotel.

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Figure 1: Fake Hotel Login Screen

The other use of these rogue Wi-Fi hotspots is to infect your device with a malicious malware in the form of an update program or a fake “Terms of Service” link that will download and execute a malware.

At minimum, make sure your device is protected by the latest anti-virus or other end point protection software.

Be careful of Wi-Fi hotspots that ask for your phone number

There are some Wi-Fi hotspots around the world that ask for your phone number and then send you an SMS with the access code. These kind of hotspots can be used to conduct targeted attacks on the user.

Here is a possible scenario that might be played:

1. User connects to a rogue hotspot and enters the phone number.

2. User continues to use the connection to perform a few actions (check email, check bank balance, etc.)

3. Although the mail or banking app is secure, the hacker can still see who you are connecting to, therefore will know which email service you use or which bank you use.

4. Hack sends a spoof SMS which can carry a malicious link that might inject a malware or send you to a fake website.

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Figure 2: Fake SMS

Choose an encrypted hotspot over an open hotspot

This is true especially at airports, some airline lounges offer encrypted Wi-Fi hotspots (those that need a password to join the network). These networks are preferred over the typically free airport wide hotspots. But do pay attention that it is not a rogue Wi-Fi hotspot.

Use of VPN

Virtual Private Networks (VPN) is a private tunnel that encrypts the traffic between end-points. The use of a VPN service will help secure your traffic from eavesdropping but do note that the VPN used should be of a reputable source. I recommend you do some research on the VPN vendor before signing up for any service. An alternative is to host your own VPN service, which is an extension from my previous paper “Protection of Home Networks”.

However, do note that even with the use of a VPN to encrypt the traffic, there is still a vulnerability – this occurs at point of connection. The VPN cannot connect until you are connected to the Internet, and the VPN connection is not instantaneous. Sometimes before you can connect to the Internet, the Wi-Fi Hotspot will direct you to a captive portal to manually accept some “Terms of Service” agreement.

During this period before your VPN connection is established, your device might be trying to connect to some services. For example, you could have an email client or chat service that tries to connect automatically, and this traffic is out in the clear for all to see, including potentially the login credentials.

Even if your software attempts to use HTTPS, it could be vulnerable to attacks like SSLStrip, which tricks the software into using open HTTP anyway. This vulnerability window might be very small, but that is enough to expose valuable information like login credentials.

Configure software firewall

If you are using a public Wi-Fi from your computer, there are a few more protection actions you could employ.

The idea is to block all inbound and outbound connections on your public networks (or zones) with the exception of a browser that you use to connect to captive portals. That browser should be one you only use for this purpose.

You should also set up a profile/zone for VPN traffic where inbound / outbound traffic is less restricted (you should always block all outbound connections by default and then allow connections as needed) This approach will ensure your email and other programs do not send unnecessary data out before the VPN is connected.


Although there might be a need to get connected on the go, it pays to be vigilant on who you are connecting to, how you are connected and what you are doing online over that connection.

Paying attention to basic security hygiene can save you from a lot of trouble later.

A link to a PDF version of this blog can be found here


Home Network Security update

I have updated my guide to protecting your home network. You can get a copy here

Some folks have asked me about some of the more affordable UTM devices they can get.

Today some of the more affordable UTMs are :
  • Sophos SG series
  • Dell SonicWall TZ Series
  • Zyxel USG series

the Sophos devices have the highest throughput but a bit more pricey.

The lower end sonic wall (TZ SOHO) is the cheapest but also lowest bandwidth, I actually recommend the TZ300w as a minimum level for SonicWall.

My personal favourite is the Zyxel USG60w, although the USG40w could fit most needs.

at the end of the day, it would be a decision to balance cost vs performance.

Home InfoSecurity

With the increase of hacking tools easily available online, there seems to be an upsurge on intrusion attempts on home networks. While the basic hygiene factor of using strong password on your WPA2 connections is a must, there are certainly many more things you can do to harden your home/small business.

One of the easiest thing to do is to get a local firewall (something like Hands Off! or Little Snitch on the Mac) which can alert you to unexpected outgoing traffic from your applications. It may be a bit annoying as you start to use it, but over time it will learn your usage behaviour and the accepted sites your computer communicates with.

Further steps can be taken to replace your home router with a Unified Security Gateway, some of these gateways are at the same price as a high end router but offer so much more in terms of protection. The one that comes to mind are Zyxel USG20 or USG60. Feel free to contact me if you have questions on how to set up something like this at your premise.

you can download a quick guide

Securing your USB flash drives

Many of us make use of the extremely convenient USB drive to share files, but there are lots of opportunity for files to be leaked (intentionally or accidentally) - someone could copy the wrong file from your drive. Some people get around this by having multiple USB flash drives, but there is a better, more secure way to do this.

I would recommend using TrueCrypt


TrueCrypt is a source-available freeware application used for on-the-fly encryption (OTFE). This application offers you a way to secure part (or whole) of your USB flash drive that you can confidently share with others.

TrueCrypt is available on Windows, Linux and Mac and is pretty straightforward to use. I would suggest encrypting most of your USB flash drive and leave a smaller partition for convenient file sharing while keeping the rest of your files protected.

Here is how you would do it:

When you start up TrueCrypt, you will see this window


Click on “Create Volume”, you will then get this window”


I recommend starting with just a encrypted file container and you can explore partitions as you get more comfortable using the technology.

You will now decide if you want the file hidden… in most cases, a standard volume is sufficient, but if you are paranoid, you could create a hidden volume, but note that this is not foolproof as there are tools that would allow people to detect hidden TrueCrypt volume (but not decrypt it).


THe next step would be to tell it where to create the file container, at this window, click on “Select Device…” and create a file on the USB drive.


The next screen will ask you what encryption algorithm you want to use, I recommend just staying with the default settings:


then you would select what size you would like the container to be. The size would depend on how you would use your drive, just make sure you allocate enough storage for the files you want to protect.


Next, create a password to access your encrypted files.


next, decided on the format, I suggest keeping it at FAT for better compatibility across operating systems


the next step involves some user action - keep moving your mouse (or trackpad) to crete a random Pool for encryption, when you are done, hit the “Format” button:


this step could take a while depending on how large is your encrypted area. when this is done, you will see a popup like this:


You can create additional encrypted areas by repeating the steps or just click exit to finish.


Now you can safely share files in the non=encrypted area of your USB Drive and not worry about private files on it.

to access your encrypted area, you have to mount the file in Truecrypt by electing the file and click on “Mount

I would also recommend creating a directory on the un-encrypted area of your drive and putting the Truecrypt installer for all the platforms.


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